Command Post of the Future
As part of DARPA's
Post of the Future program, the CMU group worked on components for a
Command Post Information Environment
that provide new ways to collaborate with each other and to interact with
supporting information assets and sources. This project ran from 1998 through
2002, and was credited with influencing some of the technology currently in use
by the military.
The MayaViz company (now
General Dynamics Viz) took some of these ideas into the field in Iraq.
The key publication about CMU's CPoF work is:
- Brad Myers, Robert Malkin, Michael Bett, Alex Waibel, Ben Bostwick, Robert
C. Miller, Jie Yang, Matthias Denecke, Edgar Seemann, Jie Zhu, Choon Hong
Peck, Dave Kong, Jeffrey Nichols, Bill Scherlis. "Flexi-modal and
Multi-Machine User Interfaces", IEEE Fourth International Conference on
Multimodal Interfaces, Pittsburgh, PA. October 14-16, 2002. pp. 343-348.
Other publications are listed on the
CMU CPoF page, and the
Pebbles CPoF publications page.
The Pebbles part of the CPoF project focused on how handhelds can be used to access information and control devices.
The results from the Pebbles part included:
Private Drill-Down of Public Information
Using visualizations of the CPoF maps, we have investigated the issues around
how handhelds can be used for people in the command post to annotate, investigate
and edit the shared maps and the information behind them. This research has
integrated the software from MayaVis (visualizations), the CMU multimodal group
(speech gestures, handwriting recognition, etc.), and Pebbles (handhelds) into
When the main display shows a large map (Figure 1), the handheld can be used
to annotate and investigate various scenarios (Figure 2) or to drill-down to
investigate in detail in a table (Figure 3).
|Figure 1: PC Screen of CPoF Battle Board Program
|Figure 2: PDA Screen
||Figure 3: PDA Drill Down Table
Slideshow Commander is a tool
for using handhelds to control PowerPoint presentations, including seeing a
picture and the notes of the current slide, using the handheld to annotate slides,
RemoteCommander and Shortcutter
Remote Commander and Shortcutter
are techniques for using handhelds to control other applications running on
Laser Pointers Interactions
An important part of the vision of the Command Post of the Future is the use
of laser pointers. We have performed a variety of studies on how to make these
more effective. One promising result shows that "snarfing" (copying)
the area around the pointer dot to the handheld, performing the edits on the
handheld, and then copying the results back works much better than trying to
interact solely with the laser pointer.
Collaboration and Turn-taking
When multiple people are sharing a single large display, it can be confusing
and awkward to take turns controlling and annotating. In addition to the laser
pointer work, we have also studied fundamental issues of "floor control"
(who has control) as well as various ways that handhelds can help.